Cotton shirts that you don’t need to iron may sound like a fanciful dream but could be a reality thanks to a new project being undertaken by CSIRO.
A team of CSIRO scientists has started working on a cotton with many of the properties of synthetics, such as being stretchy, non-creasing and even waterproof, while retaining its natural fibre feel.
But before you throw away your iron, the team is first working on better understanding what determines the length, strength, and thickness of cotton fibres.
CSIRO scientist Dr Madeline Mitchell says the team is looking into the structure of cotton cell walls and harnessing the latest tools in synthetic biology to develop the next generation cotton fibre.
“We’ve got a whole bunch of different cotton plants growing; some with really long thin fibres, others like the one we call ‘Shaun the Sheep’, with short, woolly fibres.”
Their work will be on display in Melbourne this week at AgCatalyst, a showcase of CSIRO’s technologies across the agriculture and food sectors.
“Cotton often gets a bad rap environmentally but it is a natural, renewable fibre unlike synthetics which are made with petrochemicals. Every time you wash synthetics like polyester and nylon, thousands of tiny microfibres of material are pulled free and enter our waterways.”
“These are not degradable and can build up in the food chain. When you wash cotton, fibres are also shed but these are biodegradable and break down naturally in the environment.”
Through more than 30 years of improved cotton breeding using GM techniques, CSIRO and partners, Cotton Seed Distributors (CSD), is credited with reducing insecticide use in cotton growing by 85 per cent and cutting herbicide use by 60 per cent.
Australian cotton is also the most water efficient in the world.
As well as environmental reasons, there is a strong commercial imperative for improving the versatility of cotton.
“If we can produce next generation cotton then we can take a large market share of the synthetics industry and that’s a win not just for Australia’s $2.5 billion industry but also for the environment.”
Managing Director of CSD Peter Graham says while synthetics may be cheaper to produce